Birds excrete nitrogenous waste as urate bound with mucus in their urine. Renal disease decreases the amount of uric acid removed from the blood causing an acute or chronic increase in uric acid in the body. Most cases of gout in poultry are a result of dehydration, eating laying feed before laying age (>3% calcium content), renal infection by renal damaging strains of infectious bronchitis or infection by a
Avian nephritis (causes inflammation of the kidney) virus.
Chronic disease is less common, but is seen in cases with chickens with hereditary defects in uric acid metabolism or that are fed excessive protein.