Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body is either not capable of producing sufficient insulin to regulate blood glucose levels or the insulin produced is unable to work effectively.
Obesity increases a person’s risk of Type 2 diabetes. A 2011 study published in Diabetes Care approves the relationship between obesity and Type 2 diabetes and emphasizes preventing obesity in order to benefit the incidence and care of Type 2 diabetes.
A 2014 report by Public Health England states that being overweight or obese is the main modifiable risk factor for Type 2 diabetes.
According to the report, 90 percent of adults with Type 2 diabetes in England were overweight or obese in 2014.
High Blood Pressure
About 1 in 3 U.S. adults, or about 70 million people, suffer from high blood pressure or hypertension, according to the CDC.
Every time the heart beats, it pumps blood through the arteries to the rest of your body. A blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg is considered normal.
If the top figure is consistently 140 or higher and the bottom figure is 90 or higher, then you suffer from high blood pressure.
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, and it has been found to increase with weight gain and age.
A 2009 study published in the Ochsner Journal highlights the connection between obesity and hypertension. The study emphasizes that weight loss, though difficult, must be the first line of therapy for treating hypertension.
People who are overweight or obese are more likely to have high cholesterol, a condition in which the levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL or ‘bad’ cholesterol) and triglycerides are too high and the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDL or ‘good’ cholesterol) is too low.
Abnormal levels of these blood fats are a risk factor for coronary heart disease.
A 2004 study published in the International Journal of Obesity analyzed the relationship between total cholesterol, age and BMI among males and females in the WHO MONICA Project.
Researchers concluded that public health measures should be directed at the prevention of obesity in young adults since it increases the risk of excess cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Apart from obesity, smoking, excessive drinking, increased age, genetics, diabetes, high blood pressure, and kidney or liver disease also play a major role in high cholesterol.
To fight obesity and high cholesterol, try to lose weight. A 2007 study published in Obesity (Silver Spring) reports that sustained weight loss is an effective method to reverse the decrease in HDL levels in obese people.
More specifically, weight loss achieved through exercise is highly effective at raising HDL levels compared to dieting.
Heart Disease and Stroke
With an increase in BMI, there is also an increased risk for heart disease. Obesity leads to the buildup of plaque (a waxy substance) inside the coronary arteries that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart. Plaque obstructs blood flow to the heart.
Moreover, obesity may cause or contribute to alterations in cardiac structure and function. The risk of sudden cardiac death as well as a stroke is also increased with obesity.
Plus, obesity increases the risk of high blood pressure and high cholesterol, and both conditions increase the risk of heart disease or strokes.
A 2006 study published in Circulation reports that obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and increased morbidity and mortality rates.
A 2008 study published in the Journal of American Board of Family Medicine notes that obesity affects the cardiovascular system directly in many ways, in addition to its indirect effects, and it increases morbidity and mortality.
The study also stresses taking necessary steps to stop the obesity epidemic to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases in people.