Disorders of auditory perception:
Lesions of the left superior temporal gyrus produce problems of speech perception with difficulty in discriminating speech and the temporal order of sounds impaired. Lesions of the right superior temporal gyrus produce prosody. Prosody is the study of the metre of verse. Here it means the rhythm of speech.
Lesions of the right superior temporal gyrus can produce disorders of perception of music with inability to discriminate melodies.
The inferior temporal cortex is responsible for visual perception and lesions produce inability to recognise faces, called prosopagnosia.
There may be disturbance of visual and auditory input selection. This presents as impairment of short-term memory (also called working memory) and of judgement about the recency of events.
The area is responsible for the organisation and categorisation of words and pictures. Impairment of this ability to categorise means reduction in both ability and fluency in listing categories.
There may be difficulty using contextual information, in extracting information from the environment and using visual and social cues.
The medial and inferior temporal cortex and hippocampus are responsible for memory. There is complete anterograde amnesia following bilateral removal of medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and amygdala. There is difficulty recalling information. The left side is responsible for verbal material and the right for non-verbal memory such as faces, tunes and drawings. The difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia is that retrograde amnesia is loss of memory from before an event. It often happens with head injury with loss of memory leading up to that event, although this is commonly gradually recovered. Anterograde amnesia is loss of memory between the event and the present time.